Bidens conjuncta

leaf Main Plant Information





Hawaiian Names with Diacritics

  • Kokolau
  • Koʻokoʻolau
  • Kōʻokoʻolau
  • Koʻolau

Hawaiian Names

  • Kokolau
  • Kookoolau
  • Koolau

Common Names

  • Bog beggarticks

leaf Plant Characteristics

Distribution Status


Endangered Species Status

At Risk

Plant Form / Growth Habit

  • Non-Woody, Clumping

Mature Size, Height (in feet)

  • Herbaceous, Medium, 1-3
  • Herbaceous, Tall, Greater than 3

Life Span

No data available.

Landscape Uses

  • Accent

Additional Landscape Use Information

Not yet known to be in residential or commercial landscapes. But perhaps could be used as an accent plant as some other koʻokoʻolau are.

Source of Fragrance

  • No Fragrance

Plant Produces Flowers


leaf Flower Characteristics

Flower Type


Flower Colors

  • Yellow

Additional Flower Color Information

The yellow flowers are attractive en masse.

leaf Leaf Characteristics

Plant texture

  • Medium

Leaf Colors

  • Medium Green

leaf Pests and Diseases

Additional Pest & Disease Information

Perhaps the same pests that affect other native Bidens spp. such as spider mites, aphids, scale, spittle bugs, slugs and snails.

leaf Growth Requirements

Water Requirements

  • Wet

Additional Water Information

"Water Requirements" of this species are based on habitat.

Light Conditions

  • Full sun

Additional Lighting Information

"Light Requirements" are based on typical growing needs of Bidens spp. in general.

leaf Environmental Information

Natural Range

  • Maui

Natural Zones (Elevation in feet, Rainfall in inches)

  • 2000 to 2999, Greater than 100 (Wet)
  • 3000 to 3999, Greater than 100 (Wet)
  • 4000 to 4999, Greater than 100 (Wet)


  • Terrestrial

Additional Habitat Information

Bidens conjuncta is rare and found scattered in wet forest and bogs, as well as ridges and gulches, from about 2950 to around 4400 feet on montane summits of West Maui.

leaf Special Features and Information

General Information

Koʻokoʻolau (Bidens spp.) are members of the Aster or Sunflower family (Asteraceae). There are nineteen endemic species of Bidens.

The natives are not invasive as are some of the alien species such as kī (Bidens pilosa) with its harpoon-like seeds (kukū) that seem attracted to long pants, socks and shoe laces or the White beggarticks (Bidens alba) that blanket huge areas with "cute-but-don't-grow-them-anyway" white and yellow flowers.


The name Bidens is derived from the Latin bi, two, and dens, teeth in reference to the pappus awns or collective bristles on the achenes (fruit, seeds).

The specific Latin epithet conjucta means "closely connected" or "related."

Background Information

All Bidens species can hybridize, which should be avoided. Individual species are often restricted to one habitat.

Bidens conjuncta possibly hybridizes with B. micrantha subsp. micrantha but the evidence is inconclusive at present.

Early Hawaiian Use

Leaves of all species of native koʻokoʻolau were used medicinally and for a tea tonic.

Modern Use

All species of koʻokoʻolau can be brewed as a tonic and each are said to have distinct flavors. Regarding Bidens spp., Isabella Abbott comments that "I find that the roughly half a dozen species common in Hawaiʻi offer two or three slightly different flavors, each a bit more subtle than commercial black tea." [1]

Additional References

[1] "Lāʻau Hawaiʻi: Traditional Hawaiian Uses of Plants" by Isabella Aiona Abbott, page 102.

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This record is as complete as we can generate for this plant profile at this point. Please email if you wish to contribute to the data. Please include sources and references for all data submitted